The Function Of Phrases
A verb phrase consists of a verb, its direct and/or indirect objects, and any adverb, adverb phrases, or adverb clauses which happen to modify it. The predicate of a clause or sentence is always a verb phrase:
- Corinne is trying to decide whether she wants to go to medical school or to go to law school.
- He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore, he decided to make something else.
- After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
- We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
- Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.
- object of a verb
- To read quickly and accurately is Eugene's goal.
- object of a preposition
- The arctic explorers were caught unawares by the spring breakup.
- subject complement
- Frankenstein is the name of the scientist not the monster.
- object complement
- I consider Loki my favorite cat.
(by David Megginson)
- Ice fishing is a popular winter pastime.
However, since verbals are formed from verbs, they can also take direct objects and can be modified by adverbs. A gerund phrase or infinitive phrase, then, is a noun phrase consisting of a verbal, its modifiers (both adjectives and adverbs), and its objects:
- Running a marathon in the Summer is thirsty work.
- I am planning to buy a house next month.
- I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "of my neighbour's constant piano practising" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "sound."
- My father-in-law locked his keys in the trunk of a borrowed car.
Similarly in this sentence, the prepositional phrase "of a borrowed car" acts as an adjective modifying the noun "trunk."
- We saw Peter dashing across the quadrangle.
- We picked up the records broken in the scuffle.
In this sentence, the participle phrase "broken in the scuffle" modifies the noun phrase "the records."
A prepositional phrase can also be an adverb phrase, functioning as an adverb, as in the following sentences.
- She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "to the corner store" acts as an adverb modifying the verb "went."
- Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "in the night sky" functions as a adverb modifying the verb "flashed."
- In early October, Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs; unfortunately, squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "in early October" acts as an adverb modifying the entire sentence.
- We will meet at the library at 3:30 P.M.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "at 3:30 P.M." acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "will meet."
- The dogs were capering about the clown's feet.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase "about the clown's feet" acts as an adverb modifying the verb phrase "were capering."
Written by Heather MacFadyen