Demolinguistic Statistics

Introduction to the Reference Documentation

In this section we provide a comprehensive list of Statistics Canada's resources. These documents are grouped into four categories: 1) Technical reports, 2) Subject-Matter Documentation, 3) Data Tables, and 4) Analytical products. In this way, we complete our guided tour by providing the necessary information and giving the reader the freedom to navigate.

Reference Documentation

Technical Reports

Technical reports deal with the quality of data gathered and generally include, reports on sampling, weighting, coverage, and other methodological considerations like imputation, error detection, linking, suppression, random rounding, and so forth. In this segment, we provide technical reports sorted by year.

Sampling and Weighting

html: Sampling and Weighting, 2016 Census (available Oct. 25, 2017)
pdf: Available Oct 25th, 2017.25th, 2017.

html: Sampling and Weighting, 2011 NHS
pdf: Sampling and Weighting Technical Report (NHS).pdf

html: Sampling and Weighting, 2006 Census
pdf: Sampling and Weighting Technical Report.pdf

html: Sampling and Weighting, 2001 Census
pdf:  Sampling and Weighting Technical Report.pdf

html: Sampling and Weighting, 1996 Census
pdf:  Sampling and Weighting Technical Report.pdf 

html: Sampling and Weighting, 1991 Census
pdf: Sampling and Weighting Technical Report.pdf

html: Sampling and Weighting, 1986 Census  
pdf:  Sampling and Weighting Technical Report.pdf

Census Strategy Projects : Methodology & Content Consultations

Royce (2011) Preliminary report on Methodology options for the 2016 Census.pdf.

Statistics Canada (2014) Census Program Content Consultation Report, Census Year 2016

Statistics Canada (2008) Census Content Consultation Report, Census Year 2011.

Statistics Canada (2003) Content Consultation Report, 2006 Census

Statistics Canada (1997) Census Consultation Guide, 2001 Census

Statistics Canada (1994) Census Consultation Report, 1996 Census

Statistics Canada (1990) 1991 Census Content Development Final Report.


Form 2A
Form 2B (2A-L)

Form 2A (Census)
Form N2 (NHS)

Form 2A
Form 2B

Form 2A
Form 2B

Form 2A
Form 2B

Subject-Matter Documentation

This section deals with the theoretical frameworks, dimensions, definitions, and operationalization of the many variables that are quantified at Statistics Canada. Documents in this category include the Census Dictionary, Topic Guides, Data Sourcing Guides to mention a few. In this section we include these aforementioned sorted by census year.


Census Dictionary, 2016 

Census Dictionary, 2011
NHS Dictionary, 2011

Census Dictionary, 2006

Census Dictionary, 2001

Census Dictionary, 1996 

Census Dictionary, 1991

Census Dictionary, 1986

Census Dictionary, 1981

Census Dictionary, 1976

Census Dictionary, 1971

Topic Guides


-Aboriginal Peoples


-Ethnic Origin


-Mobility and migration

-Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration

-Visible Minority and Population Group


-Aboriginal Peoples Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Education Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Ethnic Origin Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Languages Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Language Reference Guide, 2011 Census
-Mobility and Migration Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Place of Birth, Generation Status, Citizenship and Immigration, Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Religion Reference Guide, 2011 NHS
-Visible Minority and Population Group Reference, 2011 NHS
-Your Guide to Data Sources on Census Program Topics


-Ethnic Origin
-Immigration and Citizenship
-Mobility and Migration
-Visible Minorities
-Aboriginal Peoples


-Ethnic Origin
-Visible Minority
-Mobility and Migration


Data Tables

As far as the census program goes, data products for the Census of Population come in the form of a) Aggregated tables, b) Profiles, c) Highlight Tables, d) and Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF). All of these data products retain Canadians' confidentiality by either restricting their geographical scope (e.g. national, provincial, and municipal), using lower sample ratios (e.g. 2% PUMF files), or introducing various data perturbation techniques in the database (e.g. PUMF files). They nevertheless provide a wealth of cross-tabulated information suitable for many levels of geographic precision. The census of population, moreover, can be searched by variable or by topic. Likewise, the National Household Survey can be searched by variable, by topic, or geographic level .

For other surveys, the premier database available is the Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System (CANSIM). CANSIM provides access to a range of data tables, is updated daily, and it is searchable by topic or by survey. Some examples include: The National Household Survey, The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), the Elementary-Secondary Education Survey (ESES), the Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB), General Social Survey - Social Identity (GSS-SI), the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), as well as a few tables from the Census Programme. In general, higher-frequency surveys find their way here.

Statistics Canada has made 2016 Census data products, analytical products, and reference materials available by topic. To see a portrait of Canada's population with regard to language, see:



Analytical Articles

This section provides a thematic list of all documents used in the making of this guide.

     Demolinguistic Questions

  1. Blue, A. (1902) Report on the Fourth Census of Canada, 1901. Ottawa: The Census Office.
  2. Bouchard, P. (2002) La langue du travail: Une situation qui progresse, mais toujours teintée d’une certain précarité. In Bouchard, P., and Bourhis, R. (Eds.) L’aménagement linguistique au Québec: 25 ans d’application de la Chartre de la langue Francaise. Revue d’aménagement linguistique. Hors serie: 85-103.
  3. Cartier, G. (2008) City of Québec 1608-2008: 400 years of censusesCanadian Social Trends. (Cat.11-008-X)
  4. Chevrier, M. (1997) Laws and language in Québec: The principles and means of Québec's language policy. Ministère des Relations Internationales.
  5. Corbeil, J.P. (2010) Demolinguistic information and the Canadian census (1969-2009): Reflection of a changing linguistic duality.
  6. Gaffield, C. (2000) Linearity, nonlinearity, and the competing constructions of social hierarchy in early twentieth-century Canada: The question of language in 1901. Historical Methods, 33 (4): 255-260.
  7. Gémar, J.C. (2008) The major commissions of inquiry and the first language laws. In (eds.) The French language in Québec: 400 years of history and life.
  8. Houle, R. and Cambron-Prémont, A. (2015) Les concepts et les questions posées sur les langues aux rencensements canadiens de 1901 à 1961Cahiers québécois de démographie, 40(2), p.291-310.
  9. Houle, R., Corbeil, J.P., and Charron, M. (2012) Les langues de travail au Québec en 2006.
  10. Lachapelle, R. and Lepage, J.F. (2010) Languages in Canada: 2006 CensusNew Canadian Perspectives. Canadian Heritage. 

    Official-Language Bilingualism
  11. Bougie, E. (2010)Family, community, and Aboriginal language among young First Nations children living off reserve in Canada.Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008-X)
  12. Corbeil, J.-P. (2011) L’information démolinguistique et le recensement Canadien (1969-2009): Reflet d’une dualité linguistique en mutation. In Jedwab, J. and Landry, R. (eds)Life After Forty: Official Languages Policy in Canada. Montréal and Kingston: Queen’s Policy Studies Series, Mcgill University press.
  13. Corbeil, J.-P. (2012)Linguistic characteristics of Canadians [2011 Census]
  14. Harrison, B. (2000)Passing on the language: Heritage language diversity in Canada.Canadian Social Trends. (Cat 11-008)
  15. Houle, R. (2011)Immigrant languages in Canada.Census in Brief. (Cat. 98-314-X2011003)
  16. Houle, R. (2011)Recent evolution of immigrant-language transmission in Canada.Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008-X)
  17. Houle, R. and Corbeil, J.P. (2017)Language Projections for Canada, 2011-2036.Ethnicity, Language, and Immigration Thematic Series.
  18. Langlois, S. and Turner, A. (2011)Aboriginal Languages in Canada.Census in Brief.(Cat. 98-314-X2011003)
  19. Langlois, S., and Turner, A. (2014)Aboriginal languages and selected vitality indicators in 2011.(Cat. 89-655-X-No.001)
  20. Langois, S. (2011)Aboriginal peoples and language.NHS in Brief(Cat. 99-011-X2011003)
  21. Lepage, J.-F., and Corbeil, J-P. (2013)The evolution of English-French bilingualism in Canada from 1961 to 2011.Insights on Canadian Society. Catalogue no. 75-006-X
  22. Norris, M.J. (2007)Aboriginal languages in Canada: Emerging trends and perspectives on second language acquisition.Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008-X)
  23. Statistics Canada (2011)The evolution of English-French bilingualism in Canada from 1901 to 2011.Canadian Megatrends.
  24. Turcotte, M. (2006)Passing on the ancestral language.Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008)

    Language Practices
  25. Béland, P. (2008) Langue et immigration, langue du travail: Eléments d'analyseConseil Supérieur de la Langue Française.
  26. Blaser, C. [Statistics Canada] (2009) Health care professionals and Official Language Minorities in CanadaDemography Division. (Cat. 91-550-X)
  27. Boyd, M., and Schellenberg, G. (2007) Re-accreditation and the occupations of immigrant doctors and engineers. Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008)
  28. Chui, T. and Zietsma, D. (2003) Earnings of immigrants in the 1990s. Canadian Social Trends
  29. Corbeil, J.P. (2008) Using languages at work in Canada, 2006 Census. **Glossary of definitions
  30. Derrick, T. (2009) Immigrants in Canada who work in a language other than English or FrenchCanadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008-X)
  31. Derrick, T. (2009) The impact of working in a non-official language on the occupations and earnings of immigrants in Canada. Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008-X)
  32. Dryburgh, H., and Hamel, J. (2004) Immigrants in demand: Staying or leaving? Canadian Social Trends.
  33. Grenier, C., Corbeil, J-P, and Lafreniere, S. (2007) Minorities speak up: Results of the survey on the vitality of official-language minorities. Demography Division, Statistics Canada. (Cat. 91-548-X)
  34. Grondin, C. [Statistics Canada] (2007) Knowledge of Official Languages among new immigrants: How important is it in the labour market? Special Surveys Division. (Cat. 89-624-XIE)
  35. Houle, R., Corbeil, J.P., Charron, M. (2012) Les langues de travail au Québec en 2006.Office Québécois de la Langue Francaise. 
  36. Lavoie, E., and Houle, R., (2015) Language practices of children in Francophone families living in a minority linguistic environmentPortrait of Official Language Minorities in Canada. Cat. 89-642-x2015012.
  37. Lavoie, E., and Houle, R., (2015) Language practices of children in Francophone families living outside Québec. Insights on Canadian Society. Cat. 75-006-X
  38. Lepage, J.F. [Statistics Canada] (2012) The situation of Official-Language minorities in the labour marketSocial and Aboriginal Statistics Division. (Cat. 89-651-X2012001)
  39. Marmen, L. and Delisle, S. (2003) Healthcare in French outside Québec. Canadian Social Trends.
  40. Martel, L. Caron-Malenfant, Vézina, S., and Bélanger, A. (2007) Labour Force Projections for Canada, 2006-2031. Canadian Economic Observer. (Cat. 11-010-XIB)
  41. Office québécois de la langue française (2006) Langue du travail: Indicateurs relatifs à l'évolution de la population active et a l'utilisation des langues au travail en 2001.
  42. Statistics Canada (2003) Use of English and French at work. 2001 Census analysis series.
  43. Tran, K. (2004) Visible minorities in the labour force: 20 years of change. Canadian Social Trends.
  44. Turcotte, M. [Statistics Canada] (2010) Retail customer service in FrenchCanadian Social Trends (Cat. 11-008-X)

    Second Language Education and Literacy
  45. Allen, M. (2004) Does French immersion improve reading achievement? Canadian Social Trends.
  46. Allen, M. (2004) French immersion 30 years laterEducation Matters: Insights on education, learning, and training in Canada.
  47. Arriagada, P. and Hango, D. (2016) Literacy and numeracy among off-reserve First Nations people and Métis: Do higher skill levels improve labour market outcomes?Insights on Canadian Society.
  48. Bérard-Chagnon, J. (2015) Competencies in literacy among Ontario Francophones: Current situation and emerging issues. Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division, Statistics Canada.
  49. Bérard-Chagnon, J. and Lepage, J.F. (2016) The literacy skills of Newbrunswick Francophones: Demographic and Socioeconomic Issues. Ethnicity, Language and Immigration Thematic Series. 
  50. Bonikowska, A., Green, D., and Riddell, C. (2008) Literacy and the labour market: Cognitive skills and immigrant earningsInternational Adult Literacy Survey.
  51. Boothby, D., (2002) Literacy Skills, Occupational Assignment and the Returns to Over- and Under-Education. International Adult Literacy Survey
  52. Brockington, R. (2011) Summary public school indicators for Canada, the Provinces and Territories, 2005/2006 to 2009/2010Culture, Tourism and the Center for Education Statistics Research Papers. Cat. 81-595-M-no.095
  53. Clark, W. (2002) 100 years of educationCanadian Social Trends.
  54. Corbeil, J.P. (1998) Literacy: does language make a difference? Canadian Social Trends.
  55. Corbeil, J.P. (2000) Literacy in Canada: Disparity between Francophones and AnglophonesDemography Division.
  56. Corbeil, J.P. (2003) 30 years of education: Canada’s language groups. Canadian Social Trends.
  57. Corbeil, J.P. (2006) The Canadian component of the 2003 international adult literacy and skills survey (IALSS): The situation of official language minorities.International Adult Literacy Survey.
  58. Coulombe, S., Tremblay, J.-F., and Marchand, S. (2004) Literacy scores, human capital and growth across fourteen OECD countries. International Adult Literacy Survey.
  59. Ferrer, A., Green, D., and Riddell, C. (2004) The effect of literacy on immigrant earnings. International Adult Literacy Survey.
  60. Findlay, L. and Kohen, D. (2013) Measures of Language Outcomes using the Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Health Reports.
  61. Findlay, L., and Kohen, D., (2012) Neighbourhood factors and language outcomes of First nations Preschoolers living off reserve: Findings from the Aboriginal Children’s Survey. International Indigenous Policy Journal.
  62. Green, D., and Riddell, C. (2001) Literacy, Numeracy, and Labour Market outcomes in CanadaInternational Adult Literacy Survey.
  63. Green, D., and Riddell, C., (2007) Literacy and the market: The generation of literacy and its impact on earnings for native born CanadiansInternational Adult Literacy Survey.
  64. Grenier, S., Jones, S., Strucker, J., Murray, T.S., Gervais, G., and Brink., S. (2008) Learning literacy in Canada: Evidence from the international survey of reading skills.International Adult Literacy Survey.
  65. Guèvremont, A., and Kohen, D., (2012) Knowledge of an Aboriginal language and school outcomes for children and adults. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.
  66. Knighton, T., Brochu, P., Gluszynski, T. (2010) Measuring Up: Canadian results of the OECD PISA study. The performance of Canada`s youth in reading, mathematics, and science. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Council of Ministers of Education, and Statistics Canada.
  67. Krahn, H., and Lowe, G. (1998) Literacy utilization in Canadian workplaces. International Adult Literacy Survey.
  68. Mady, C. et Black, G. (2012). Access to French as a second official language programs in English-dominant Canada. Alberta Journal of Educational Research 57 (4) 498-501.
  69. Mady, C., and Turnbull, M. (2010) Learning French as a second official language: Reserved for anglophones. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy99.
  70. OECD (2010) PISA 2009 results: What students know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science (Volume I).
  71. Osberg, L. (2000) Schooling, Literacy and Individual EarningsInternational Adult Literacy Survey.
  72. Rubenson, K., Desjardins, R., and Yoon, E.-S. (2007) Adult learning in Canada: A comparative perspective. International Adult Literacy Survey.
  73. Shipley, L. (2011) A profile of Minority-language students in Canada: Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009. Culture, Tourism, and the Centre for Education Statistics.
  74. Statistics Canada (2016) Education Indicators in Canada: An International Perspective, 2015. Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics.
  75. Taylor, A. and Krahn, H. (2005) Aiming high: Educational aspirations of visible minority immigrant youth
  76. Tremblay, S., Ross, N., and Berthelot, J-M. (2002) Ontario Grade 3 student achievement. Canadian Social Trends.
  77. Turcotte, M. (2011) Intergenerational education mobility: University completion in relation to parents’ education level. Canadian Social Trends. (Cat. 11-008-X)
  78. Wagner, S. (2002) Literacy and Literacy Training of Francophones in Canada: Results of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS)International Adult Literacy Survey.
  79. Wagner, S. (2002) Literacy and literacy training of Francophones in Canada. International Adult Literacy Survey.
  80. Willms, D., and Murray, S., (2007) Gaining and losing literacy skills over the life courseInternational Adult Literacy Survey.
  81. Zeman, K. (2007) If you build it they will come: The impact of new universities on local youth. Education Matters: Insights on Education, Learning and Training in Canada.

    Official-Language Minorities
  82. Bouchard-Coulombe, C., Lepage, J.F., and Chavez, B. (2011) Francophones in Saskatchewan
  83. Bouchard-Coulombe, C., Lepage, J.F., and Chavez, B. (2012) Francophones in Newfoundland and Labrador.
  84. Bouchard-Coulombe, Lepage, J.F., and Chavez, B. (2012) Francophones in Nova Scotia
  85. Chavez, B., and Bouchard-Coloumbe, C.(2011) Francophones in British Columbia
  86. Chavez, B., Bouchard-Coulombe, C., and Lepage, J.F. (2011) Francophones in Alberta
  87. Chavez, B., Lepage, J.F., Bouchard-Coulombe, C. (2012) Francophones in P.E.I.
  88. Corbeil, J.P. (2006) The Canadian component of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS): The situation of Official Language MinoritiesInternational Adult Literacy Survey.
  89. Corbeil, J.P. and Lafrenière, S. (2010) Francophones in Ontario
  90. Corbeil, J.P., Chavez, B., and Pereira, D. (2010) Anglophones in Quebec
  91. Corbeil, J.P., Grenier, C., Lafrenière, S. (2006) Minorities Speak Up: Results of the Survey on the Vitality of Official-Language minorities. Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
  92. Lafrenière, S. (2013) Statistics Canada data sources on Official-Language minorities. Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division.
  93. Lavoie, E., and Houle, R., (2015) Language practices of children in Francophone families living in a minority linguistic environmentPortrait of Official Language Minorities in Canada. Cat. 89-642-x2015012.
  94. Lavoie, E., and Houle, R., (2015) Language practices of children in Francophone families living outside Québec. Insights on Canadian Society. (Cat. 75-006-X)
  95. Lepage, J.F. (2012) The situation of official-language minorities in the labour marketSocial and Aboriginal Statistics Division. 

    Portrait of Official-Language Minorities in Canada Series
  96. Lepage, J.F., Bouchard-Coulombe, C., and Chavez, B. (2012) Francophones in Manitoba
  97. Lepage, J.F., Bouchard-Coulombe, C., and Chavez, B.(2011) Francophones in New Brunswick
  98. Lepage, J.F., Chavez, B., and Bouchard-Coulombe, C. (2011) Francophones in Yukon, The Northwest Territories, and Nunavut
  99. Statistics Canada (2014) Portrait of Official-Language Minorities in Canada (Video)

    Ethnocultural Characteristics
  100. Bernard, A. (2008) Immigrants in the hinterlandsPerspectives on Labour and Income.
  101. Bonikowska, A., and Hou, F. (2016) Educational and Labour Market outcomes of Childhood Immigrants by Admission ClassAnalytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. (Cat. 11F0019M No.377)11F0019M No.377)
  102. Chui, T., and Flanders, J. (2013) Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada. NHS in Brief, Statistics Canada.
  103. Corbeil, J.P. and Houle, R. (2010) Statistical portrait of French-speaking immigrant population outside Quebec (1991-2006) Statistics Canada. (Cat. 86-641-X)
  104. Derrick, T. (2009) Immigrants in Canada who work in a language other than English and FrenchCanadian Social Trends.
  105. Derrick, T. (2009) The impact of working in a non-official language on the occupations and earnings of immigrants in Canada. Canadian Social Trends.
  106. Dobson, J., Maheux, H., and Chui, T. (2013) Generation status: Canadian-born children of immigrantsNHS in Brief, Statistics Canada.
  107. Houle, R., (2011) Recent evolution of immigrant-language transmission in Canada. Canadian Social Trends.
  108. Maheux, H. (2014) Mixed unions in CanadaNHS in BriefStatistics Canada.
  109. Maheux, H., and Flanders, J. (2013) Obtaining Canadian citizenship. NHS in BriefStatistics Canada.
  110. McMullen, K. (2006) Literacy skills among Canada’s immigrant population Education Matters: Insights on Education, Learning and Training in Canada.
  111. Myles, J., and Hou, F. (2003) Neighbourhood attainment and residential segregation among Toronto’s visible minoritiesBusiness and Labour Market Analysis Division.
  112. Ng, E., Pottie, K., and Spitzer, D. (2011) Official Language Proficiency and self-reported health among immigrants to CanadaHealth Reports
  113. Statistics Canada (2016) A Statistics Canada Minute-Immigration and Diversity ([Video] Cat. 11-629-X)
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