Analysis of Lemon Basil leaf Hydrosols Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method and Microwave Distillation for Extraction.

Lemon Basil Leaf Ocimum Basilicum Var Citriodorum

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Introduction -Lemon Basil Leaf Ocimum Basilicum Var Citriodorum
Lemon basil leaf has gained significant recognition in the field of culinary applications due to its unique and amazing scents and flavours. The primary objectives of this research project are to conduct an analysis of Lemon basil leaf hydrosols which were obtained using microwave techniques and subsequently examined through gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).
Lemon Basil Leaf
Lemon Basil Leaf Ocimum Basilicum Var Citriodorum

Lemon Basil Leaf Ocimum Basilicum Var Citriodorum

Lemon basil leaf, scientifically referred to as Ocimum Basilicum Var Citriodorum, of Lamiaceae family, contains rich source of dietary antioxidants. This herb was found in mainly northeastern Africa and southern Asia, existing with multiple potential in cooking, medicine, and cosmetics.

[1] Tahira, Riffat, et al. "Variation in bioactive compounds in different plant parts of Lemon
basil (Ocimum basilicum var citriodorum)." International Journal of Innovation in Science
and Mathematics 1.1 (2013): 2347-9051.

Lemon Basil Leaf
Lemon Basil Leaf

Sweet woodruff hydrosols were prepared using the microwave extraction method which enhanced extraction efficiency and preservation of delicate volatile compounds that may be lost during traditional distillation methods [4]. 200g of dried sweet woodruff were soaked with around 500mL of boiling hot distilled water in the microwave extraction vessel. Following an overnight soaking period, the infused herbaceous material was ready for extraction. To capture the resulting hydrosol droplets, a 300mL beaker was positioned and screwed at the center of the microwave extraction vessel. An ice cone, designed to facilitate optimal condensation, was positioned atop the vessel's lid. The microwave then runs for a duration of 9 minutes. Upon completion of each 9-minute cycle, the extraction vessels were removed from the microwave. The resulting hydrosols collected in the 200mL beaker were then transferred to a clean, dry glass bottle. A new ice cone was then placed and secured on the lid. The extraction process was repeated twice more, with each cycle lasting 9 minutes, to ensure the comprehensive extraction of all volatile and water-soluble components from the Sweet Woodruff.

[4] Nazlić, Marija, et al. "Extraction, Composition and Comparisons–Free Volatile Compounds from Hydrosols of Nine Veronica Taxa." Horticulturae 9.1 (2023): 16.

lemon basil leaf under microwave extraction
lemon basil leaf under microwave extraction

Lemon basil leaf hydrosols were then evaluated using a DB-5 MS column and GC-MS. To
eliminate water and big contaminants that can clog the GC column, 1mL, 5mL and 10mL of
the hydrosols sample was filtered by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to the analysis
leveraging the GC-MS equipment. During the first test run, which employed 5 mL of lemon
basil leaf hydrosols works best in revealing all the components. Therefore, an additional three
test run was carried out using 5mL of hydrosols to calculate the average concentrations of
each component within the hydrosols.

Table 1: Compound found in lemon basil leaf hydrosols using GC-MS.
Table 1: Compound found in lemon basil leaf hydrosols using GC-MS.

The utilization of GC-MS analysis to examine lemon basil leaf hydrosols offers significant
insights into their chemical makeup, facilitating the detection and characterization of volatile
compounds within the hydrosols. The identification and quantification of individual
constituents can be accomplished by comparing obtained mass spectra with established
reference databases [3]. It was then found that this plant boasts an extensive repertoire of
bioactive compounds, including known for potential in treating mental disorders properties
ranges from chronic illnesses to neurological disorders symptoms like depression, insomnia,
phobia, and headache [4].
[3] NIST Chemistry Webbook, SRD 69. Chemical Name Search. (n.d.).
[4] Hamedi, Azadeh, et al. "A survey on chemical constituents and indications of aromatic
waters soft drinks (hydrosols) used in Persian nutrition culture and folk medicine for
neurological disorders and mental health." Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary &
Alternative Medicine 22.4 (2017): 744-752

Figure 1: Chromatogram of lemon basil leaf hydrosol
Figure 1: Chromatogram of lemon basil leaf hydrosol

The compound that is responsible for most of lemon basil leaf medical activity are
eucalyptol, estragole and eugenol. Basil leaves have been used to cure a variety of ailments,
including fevers, coughs, influenza, asthma, bronchitis, and diarrhoea. The most significant pharmacological applications of basil include its anti-cancer, radioprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and prophylactic effects in the treatment of cardiovascular disease [5]. Eucalyptol have anti-inflammatory properties which was found proof that the
monoterpene 1.8-cineol has anti-inflammatory properties in asthma, providing a new
justification for its usage as a mucolytic drug in upper and lower airway illnesses [6]. In
additionally, eugenol is renowned for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant
effects. Eugenol has been investigated for its potential to reduce inflammation, fight
infection, and relieve pain [7].

[5] Shahrajabian, Mohamad Hesam, Wenli Sun, and Qi Cheng. "Chemical components and
pharmacological benefits of Basil (Ocimum basilicum): A review." International Journal of
Food Properties 23.1 (2020): 1961-1970.

[6] Juergens, Uwe R., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in
bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial." Respiratory medicine 97.3
(2003): 250-256.

[7] Bendre, R. S., et al. "Outlooks on medicinal properties of eugenol and its synthetic
derivatives." Nat Prod Chem Res 4.3 (2016): 1-6.

Compounds responsible for medicinal properties
Compounds responsible for medicinal properties

My name is Rachael Lee, an international student from Malaysia currently in my fourth year of pursuing an Honours bachelor’s degree in chemistry at the University of Ottawa. Having the opportunity to volunteer at John L. Holmes Mass Spectrometry Facility not only allows me to develop my practical skills in analytical chemistry but also provides an invaluable platform for me to learn more about mass spectrometry and analytical chemistry. Moreover, with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry which allows examination of the chemicals contained in the hydrosols of various raw materials, I am thrilled to pursue analyzing additional plant samples using the methods I have acquired from this experience.

Rachael Lee
Rachael Lee