Program overview

Program requirements

Acquired skills

University education stimulates the development of many valuable skills transferable to the workplace. Employers increasingly demand a set of skills from their employees; communication, research, data use, analytical, decision-making, problem-solving, planning and organizational, responsibility, adaptability and autonomy, and teamwork skills are sought after. While they can seem limited to each program of study, skills are adaptable and extendable to a variety of situations and they can also be used to acquire other aptitudes and abilities hence ensuring the development and advancement of ones career (to further develop your skill set, see Experience section). The list of skills below can then help in the process of choosing occupations that best fit your education and aptitudes and it can also be used to communicate your employability.

General Skills Specific Skills 

  • Critical and analytical thinking and abstract reasoning skills
  • Ability to carry out tasks with thoroughness and precision
  • Skills to critically evaluate and interpret theories and research
  • Skills in research and assessment
  • Ability to use scientific methods to analyze, interpret and assess possible behaviours
  • Ability to understand the psychological, emotional, cognitive and social determinants of human behaviour
  • Ability to describe, understand, predict and modify behaviour
  • Ability to conduct research in the physical, cognitive, emotional or social aspects of human behaviour

Further studies

Many graduate programs are available for people with an undergraduate degree interested in expanding their knowledge, specializing or conducting research. The graduate programs below are examples selected from the list of graduate programs offered by the University of Ottawa. While they are related to this program of study, it is important to consult the admission requirements of the programs as not all types of degrees qualify one for admission. Moreover, additional programs and other universities could be considered depending on your career plan.

Graduate programs

Potential occupations

Universities studies lead to multiple occupations. Furthermore, certain professions require talent, special aptitudes, additional skills and experience beyond degrees themselves. By targeting a profession, it can make decisions easier during your schooling, throughout your job search and, finally, when choosing among job offers. The choices can change over time based on academic, personal, and professional paths and on the knowledge of occupations and of the labour market.

In order to list your choices, visit the Job Bank Canada website and, using the National Occupational Classification (NOC) codes, view job postings, wages, employment prospects and other important information that can help you make a decision. If need be, additional and complementary information can be found via two online career exploration tools (Careercruising and Choices Planner)* also designed to facilitate your career advancement. The occupations found below are examples derived from the National Occupational Classification. They are presented by their occupational group title, in bold, followed by bulleted occupational titles specific to the program of study. Immediately after the occupational titles, the hyperlinked NOC code for the occupational group is provided. Overall, the occupations are presented side by side with their employment requirements and the establishments where to find a job.

The National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 is the authoritative resource on occupational information in Canada providing a standard taxonomy and framework for dialogue on Labour Market Information. It gathers more than 30,000 occupational titles into 500 Unit Groups, organized according to skill levels and skill types.

Occupations related to this program

Social and community service workers

  • Child and youth worker
  • Crisis intervention worker
  • Residential counsellor
  • Social rehabilitation officer
  • Social services officer
  • Women's centre coordinator
  • Women's shelter supervisor

Completion of a university program in social work, child and youth care, psychology or other social science or health-related discipline is usually required; previous work experience in a social service environment as a volunteer or in a support capacity may replace formal education requirements for some occupations in this unit group; social service workers may be required to be a member of a provincial regulatory body in some provinces

Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers

  • Child-care programs planning officer
  • Family violence prevention program adviser
  • Settlement counsellor
  • Social policy analysis
  • Social researcher

A bachelor's degree in a social science or related discipline or in business administration is usually required; a master's degree in a social science or related discipline or in business administration may be required

Post-secondary teaching and research assistants

  • Laboratory assistant, university
  • Post-secondary research assistant

Enrolment in a university program or a bachelor's degree in psychology is required

Statistical officers and related research support occupations

  • Psychology research assistant (except university)
  • Research assistant (except post-secondary)
  • Social science research assistant (except university)
  • Statistical officer
  • Technical research assistant (except post-secondary)

Completion of secondary school is required. A college diploma or undergraduate degree is a social science, commerce, statistics or related field is usually required.

Human resources and recruitment officers

  • Human resources officer
  • Personnel officer
  • Recruitment specialist

A bachelors degree in a field related to personnel management such as psychology; certification as a Certified Human Resources Professional (CHRP); some experience in a clerical or administrative position related to personnel administration may be required

Human resources professionals

  • Human resource specialist
  • Mediator 

A university degree in human resources management or a related field, such as business administration, industrial relations, commerce or psychology; some employers may require human resources professionals to hold a Certified Human Resources Professional (CHRP) designation

Probation and parole officers and related occupations

  • Correctional classification officer
  • Parole officer
  • Probation officer

A bachelor's degree in psychology or a related discipline; a master's degree in social work, criminology, psychology or other related social science discipline may be required; preference is given to applicants with prior experience in the social services; additional requirements will vary by province

Senior government managers and officials

  • Human resources manager
  • Industrial relations manager
  • Staff relations manager
  • Training and development manager

A bachelor's degree in a field related to personnel management, such as psychology; several years of experience as a personnel officer or human resource specialist are required

Instructors of persons with disabilities

  • Rehabilitation instructor
  • Teacher of persons with a developmental disabilities

Completion of a college program in special education, rehabilitation, orientation and mobility, visual impairment, hearing impairment or intellectual disability is required; a bachelor's degree in special education or a related field such as social work or psychology may be required


  • Psychological associate

A doctoral degree in psychology is required in order to use the designation "Psychologist" in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia; a master's degree in psychology is required for the designation "Psychologist" in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories; a master's degree in psychology is required in order to use the designation "Psychological Associate" in Ontario and Manitoba; in Prince Edward Island, a doctoral degree is required to work in private practice, or a master's degree with practice limited to institutions and agencies; a period of supervised practical experience is required in most jurisdictions; successful completion of the written Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) is required in most provinces; oral examinations and board interviews are required in some provinces; registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces, Nunavut, Yukon and the Northwest Territories; membership in the provincial professional association for psychologists is mandatory in all provinces, Nunavut, Yukon and the Northwest Territories; psychologists can become specialized in a particular area through training and experience

Family, marriage and other related counsellors

  • Addiction counsellor
  • Behavioural counsellor
  • Child and family counsellor
  • Grief counsellor
  • Marital counsellor
  • Registered clinical counsellor
  • Rehabilitation counsellor
  • Sex therapist

An undergraduate degree or college diploma in a social science is required for certain areas of counselling; a master's degree in the field of counselling, mental health or a related social service discipline is usually required; membership with a provincial association for marriage and family therapists or clinical counsellors is required to use the title "Registered Marriage and Family Therapist" or "Registered Clinical Counsellor", and in Quebec, to use the title "marriage and family therapist (MFT)", "family therapist (FT)" or "marriage therapist (MT)"; membership with a provincial association may be required by some employers; in Quebec, membership in the professional association is mandatory for counsellors and psychoeducators; registered marriage and family therapists and registered clinical counsellors must meet strict criteria involving post-graduate education and a period of supervised clinical work with clients

Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment

  • Art therapist
  • Dance therapist
  • Music therapist

Art therapists require a bachelor's degree in psychology and a master's degree in art therapy; music therapists require a bachelor's degree in psychology and a master's degree in music therapy; dance therapists require a bachelor's degree in psychology, and usually require a master's degree in art, drama or movement therapy; supervised practical training is usually required for occupations in this unit group; creative or technical ability in the field of specialization is usually required; certification or membership with the appropriate national professional association or provincial counterpart may be required

College and other vocational instructors

  • College lecturer
  • Early childhood education instructor college level

A bachelor's degree, a college diploma or demonstrated expertise in the field of instruction is required; a master's degree in the field of instruction may be required; a certificate, diploma or degree in adult education may be required

Employment counsellors

  • Career development counsellor
  • Employment counsellor
  • Workforce development officer 

A bachelors degree in employment counselling or a related discipline such as psychology; a master's degree in counselling psychology or a related field such as educational psychology, developmental psychology or social work may be required; to use the title ''counsellor'' in Quebec, membership in a professional association is required

Educational counsellors

  • Academic counsellor
  • Career counsellor education
  • Co-op officer
  • Student services counsellor

A bachelor's degree in counselling, career development, education or social sciences is required for counsellors in school settings; a master's degree in counselling psychology or a related field such as educational psychology, developmental psychology or social work is usually required; educational counsellors in post-secondary settings require an undergraduate degree and may require a graduate degree; a particular academic specialization may also be required; in Quebec, membership in L'Ordre des conseillers et conseillères d'orientation et des psychoéducateurs et psychoéducatrices du Québec is mandatory to use the title ''counsellor''; a teacher's certificate in the province of employment and some teaching experience is usually required for counsellors in school settings; educational counsellors in colleges and universities may require licensing from a provincial regulatory body governing psychologists, educational counsellors or social workers

Administrators post-secondary education and vocational training

  • Assistant dean
  • Dean
  • Faculty administrator

Faculty administrators require a graduate degree in a field related to the academic faculty and several years of experience as a university professor or college teacher

Related field

Although many students believe that they will pursue a career path directly connected to their university studies, quite often, graduates tend to work in related fields. Below is a list of possible related fields of work based on a given program of study. These fields present opportunities that are not typically considered as first choices when choosing a career path based on a program of study. Hopefully, this list will allow students to further consider the various fields that are loosely connected to their program of study. These results were compiled through a research of the University of Ottawa's alumni profiles which were found on the business-oriented social networking service, LinkedIn

Related Fields

  • Education
  • Healthcare Services
  • Research
  • Human Resources
  • Media and Communication

Acquiring experience

Experience is acquired by participating and trying new personal, educational and professional activities, where it is possible to discover preferences, increase confidence and improve skills. As for professional experience, it is acquired through volunteering, internships, self-employment and full-time or part-time jobs. And certainly, experience working on campus or in other settings adds to the set of skills acquired in your degree (see Acquired Skills section). The Employability Skills 2000+ presenting the skills employers look for in their employees as well as its complementary checklist can help target experience opportunities that will improve your skill set necessary for employment. In addition to developing these skills, performing work related to your program of study can strengthen your expertise and increase your employability.

All examples of volunteer experience and potential employers were selected specifically for this area of study and according to occupational groups in which it is possible to acquire experience. Examples of volunteer organizations in Canada and abroad are preceded by a list of directories that can help to find more volunteer opportunities. Examples of potential employers in Canada and abroad have been compiled in light of events held in partnership with employers, searches in company directories and well-established rankings.

Volunteer opportunities

In addition to providing an opportunity to apply theories and knowledge learned during your university studies outside the classroom, in real world situations, volunteering is a way to help the community and its many organizations. The Community Service Learning also allows students to contribute to their community by participating in projects that are related to their program of study.


Canada Abroad

Potential employers

The following examples of employers can offer internships or employment opportunities related to students’ program of studies. The examples are presented according to geographic location: Ottawa and Gatineau, Ontario, Quebec and other provinces.

In Canada

Ottawa/Gatineau Region Ontario

Quebec Other provinces and territories


The requirements for working abroad consider factors like administrative laws, professional standards and work permits in some countries. To learn about requirements in various countries, visit Skill Clear or MyWorldAbroad (registration with a email is required to use MyWorldAbroad).

Established globally North America (excluding Canada)

South America Europe

Asia Africa

Oceania Others

Job search resources

The job search resources are designed to stimulate networking activities, develop marketing strategies and facilitate access to job postings. Networking events offer employers the opportunity to learn about the available workforce, and they give students a chance to be considered in the recruitment process. Career Development Centre offers helpful tips on networking, interview preparation techniques and different tools that can also be used to help with the preparation of resumés and cover letters.

Professional organizations

Examples of professional organizations, presented by location, provide essential information on professional development opportunities and networking activities, the examples can also provide access to publications and job opportunities.

Canadian Provincial and territorial

American International

Job search sites

Here are a few websites posting jobs available in Canada and abroad related to this field of study.

Canadian International

General Job Search Websites