General objectives

Students must acquire sufficient proficiency in the other official language (French or English depending on language of registration) in order to enable them to integrate research from both English-language and French-language criminological traditions into their doctoral research.


  1. Upon registration in the doctoral program, students are required to take the language placement test at the University of Ottawa’s Official Language and Bilingualism Institute. If a student has already completed University level course(s) taught in the other language with a B+ or equivalent or better, continues to work or has worked in the other language (for three months or more), or has passed the official federal government language test (Level B), the Doctoral Committee may exempt the student from the test and grant an equivalency. Students are responsible for requesting an equivalency from the Chair of the Doctoral Program.
  2. If necessary, students will take language courses to meet the level required by this policy.  ESL 2113 or FLS 2513 corresponds to the required level.
  3. Students must meet the second language requirement by the end of the spring/summer semester of their 2nd year and before their thesis proposal defence. It is the responsibility of the student to provide appropriate documentation to the Department of Criminology.
  4. Students are expected to periodically attend scheduled seminars, conferences, workshops etc. held in both official languages.

Written work and language of instruction

Students at the University of Ottawa are permitted to produce written work (including class papers, thesis, and comprehensive papers) in either French or English. Students in the doctoral program must however register in mandatory courses (CRM8100/8500; CRM8102/8502 and CRM8110/8510) in their language of enrolment.  All course work (with the exception of written assignments) must be completed in the language of instruction.