Direct quote, summary, paraphrase

Follow these tips to correctly integrate sources into your academic writing.

Citing your sources

Reference sources strengthen your writing by:

  • Demonstrating that you have effectively located, read and analyzed relevant sources of information and integrated them in a thoughtful and coherent reflection.

  • Establishing the credibility and authority of your ideas and arguments.

When you need to cite reference sources

  • When taking a direct quote from a source.
  • When paraphrasing someone else’s idea (putting it in your own words).
  • When summarizing another person’s idea.
  • When using someone else’s data.
  • When using visual elements such as graphs and tables.
  • When translating a text.

What sources do you need to cite

  • Journal articles
  • Books
  • Images
  • Websites
  • Statistical tables and graphs
  • Presentation slides
  • Conference proceedings
  • Multimedia (sound, video, animation)

Three ways of using sources

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