Eskimo-Aleut Family

Group Subgroup Languages
Aleut Group Aleut
(700 speakers)
Aleut: Southwestern Alaska
Eskimo Group Yupik
(16,000 speakers)
Alutiiq: South-central Alaskan coast
Central AlaskanYup'ik: Bering Sea coast
Central Siberian Yupik: Alaskan island in Russia
Naukanski Yupik: Eastern Chuckchi Peninsula (Russia)
Sirenikski Yupik: Southern Chuckchi Peninsula (Russia)
Inuit
(65,000 speakers)
Alaskan Inupiak
Western Canadian Inuktun: Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic
Eastern Canadian Inuktitut: Nunavut, Hudson Bay, New Quebec
Inuinnaqtun: Nunavut and Hudson Bay
Itivimiut: Quebec coast of Hudson Bay
Tarramiut: Ungava Bay (Quebec)
Kalaallisut (Greenlandic): Greenland
Eskimo Aleut Family

The Eskimo-Aleut family consists of two groups (Aleut and Eskimo) that include twenty languages or dialects spoken by some 65,000 people. Many linguists use the term dialects because these idioms make up an Inuit speech group that includes Inuttut in Eastern Labrador, Inuttitut on Southern Baffin Island, Inuktitut on Northern Baffin Island, and Aivilik and Kivalliq in Keewatin, Ontario. Combined with the varieties of Greenlandic (West Greenlandic, East Greenlandic, and Thule Greenlandic), the dialects of the Western Canadian Arctic (Natsilik, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun), and those of Alaska (Northern Inupiat, Malimiutun, Qawiaraq, and the Bering dialect), this group makes up a single language: Inuit.

Other languages spoken in Southwestern Alaska (United States) and the Chukotka Peninsula in Russia’s extreme northeast are also closely related to Inuit. This includes languages in the Yupik subgroup: Central Alaskan Yupik, Alutiiq, Central Siberian Yupik, and Naukanski. Sirenikski—almost extinct—and Aleut, spoken on the Aleutian Islands in Southwestern Alaska, could also be added, the latter being a distant relative of preceding languages. A total of seven languages (including Inuit) belong to the Eskimo-Aleut family and are spoken in four countries: Russia, the United States (Alaska), Canada, and Greenland.

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